Thứ Năm, 22 tháng 2, 2018

Vũ Nguyễn: Lịch sử những vụ thiêu hủy sách trên thế giới và tại Việt Nam

Thế giới cổ kim đã xảy ra nhiều sự kiện đốt sách nhưng đa phần người Việt chỉ biết và quan tâm đến 3 vụ đốt sách: của Tần Thuỷ-Hoàng, của nhà Minh, và của CS Hà Nội sau 30-4-1975. Có lẽ, ít ai nghĩ đến những mục đích khác nhau của 3 sự kiện đốt sách ấy.
Tần Thuỷ- Hoàng (259-210 TCN) đốt sách của lục quốc vì muốn standardize hệ thống đo lường, toán pháp, công nông nghiệp... để thống nhất văn hoá Trung quốc. Mục đích của ông ta có thể hiểu được và trong một góc độ khách quan, việc này tạo tiền đề cho việc thống nhất Trung quốc và phát triển văn hoá về sau. Trong khoảng thời gian ấy, Văn Lang vừa bị Thục Phán chiếm thành nước Âu Lạc để rồi lại bị tướng Tần Triệu Đà cướp nước. Khi Đồ Thư mang quân kéo xuống Lĩnh Nam đánh Bách Việt thì chuyện chiến tranh là chính, việc đốt sách, nếu như phương nam lúc ấy có sách, không ảnh hưởng gì đến phương nam.

Nhà Minh đốt sách, phá huỷ miếu mạo tiêu diệt xoá bỏ văn minh của kẻ thù Đại Việt để thực hiện chính sách đồng hoá. Mục đích của Minh Thành Tổ (1360-1426) có thể hiểu được vì phục vụ quyền lợi và lợi ích của ông ta.
Chính quyền Hà Nội đốt sách của miền Nam sau 30-4-1975 là sự tự huỷ hoại tri thức và văn hoá của chính đất nước mình, thực hiện chính sách ngu dân, phục vụ quyền lợi của Cộng sản quốc tế. Mục đích này của các vị lãnh đạo đất nước này thì ... không thể hiểu được.
Dưới đây là một danh sách tham khảo trên Wiki các vụ đốt sách cổ kim.  
1 Antiquity
1.1 Destruction of Ebla
1.2 Destruction of Mari
1.3 Destruction of Alalakh
1.4 Destruction of Ugarit
1.5 Library of Ashurbanipal (by Babylonians, Scythians and Medes)
1.6 A scroll written by the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah (burnt by King Jehoiakim)
1.7 Protagoras's "On the Gods" (by Athenian authorities)
1.8 Zoroastrian scriptures and Persian Royal Archives (by Alexander the Great)
1.9 Chinese philosophy books (by Emperor Qin Shi Huang and anti-Qin rebels)
1.10 Books of Pretended Prophecies (by Roman authorities)
1.11 Jewish holy books (by the Seleucid monarch Antiochus IV)
1.12 Aeneid (unsuccessfully ordered by Virgil)
1.13 Roman history book (by the aediles)
1.14 Greek and Latin prophetic verse (by the Emperor Augustus)
1.15 Torah scroll (by Roman soldier)
1.16 Sorcery scrolls (by early converts to Christianity at Ephesus)
1.17 Rabbi Haninah ben Teradion burned with a Torah scroll (under Hadrian)
1.18 Burning of the Torah by Apostomus (precise time and circumstances debated)
1.19 Epicurus's book (in Paphlagonia)
1.20 Manichaean and Christian scriptures (by Diocletian)
1.21 Books of Arianism (after Council of Nicaea)
1.22 Library of Antioch (by Jovian)
1.23 "Unacceptable writings" (by Athanasius)
1.24 The Sibylline books (various times)
1.25 Writings of Priscillian
1.26 Etrusca Disciplina
1.27 Nestorius' books (by Theodosius II)

2 Middle Ages
2.1 Patriarch Eutychius' book (by Emperor Tiberius II Constantine)
2.2 Archives of Ctesiphon (during Arab conquest)
2.3 Japanese books and manuscripts (during power struggle at the Imperial court)
2.4 Repeated destruction of Alexandria libraries
2.5 Iconoclast writings (by Byzantine authorities)
2.6 Qur'anic texts with varying wording (ordered by the 3rd Caliph, Uthman)
2.7 Competing prayer books (at Toledo)
2.8 Abelard forced to burn his own book (at Soissons)
2.9 The writings of Arnold of Brescia (at France and Rome)
2.10 Nalanda University
2.11 Samanid Dynasty Library
2.12 Buddhist writings in the Maldives (by Royal dynasty converted to Islam)
2.13 Buddhist writings in the Gangetic plains region of India (by Turk-Mongol raiders)
2.14 Alamut Castle
2.15 Al-Azhar
2.16 Destruction of Cathar texts (Languedoc region of France)
2.17 Maimonides' philosophy (at Montpellier)
2.18 The Talmud (at Paris), first of many such burnings over the next centuries
2.19 Rabbi Nachmanides' account of the Disputation of Barcelona (by Dominicans)
2.20 The House of Wisdom library (at Baghdad)
2.21 Lollard books and writings (By English Law)
2.22 Wycliffe's books (at Prague)
2.23 Villena's books (in Castile)
2.24 Codices of the peoples conquered by the Aztecs (by Itzcoatl)
2.25 Gemistus Pletho's Nómoi (by Partiarch Gennadius II)

3 Early Modern Period (from 1492 to 1650)
3.1 Library and archives of the Novgorod Republic (by Ivan III and Ivan IV)
3.2 Decameron, Ovid and other "lewd" books (by Savonarola)
3.3 Arabic and Hebrew books (in Andalucía)
3.4 Arabic books and archives in Oran (by Spanish conquerors)
3.5 Catholic theological works (by Martin Luther)
3.6 Lutheran and other Protestant writings (in the Habsburg Netherlands)
3.7 Tyndale's New Testament (in England)
3.8 English Monastic Libraries (during the Dissolution of the Monasteries)
3.9 Servetus's writings (burned with their author at Geneva, and also burned at Vienne)
3.10 The Historie of Italie (In England)
3.11 Maya codices (by Spanish Bishop of Yucatan)
3.12 Cluny Abbey's library (by Huguenots)
3.13 Monastic library in Utrecht (by militant Protestants)
3.14 Arabic books in Spain (owners ordered to destroy their own books by King Philip II)
3.15 "Obscene" Maltese poetry (by the Inquisition)
3.16 Arwi books (by Portuguese in India and Ceylon)
3.17 Bernardino de Sahagún's manuscripts on Aztec culture (by Spanish authorities)
3.18 Books from the Bibliotheca Palatina (by Catholic troops)
3.19 Luther's Bible translation (by German Catholics)
3.20 Uriel da Costa's book (By Jewish community and city authorities in Amsterdam)
3.21 Marco Antonio de Dominis' writings (in Rome)

4 Early Modern Period (from 1650 until the turn of the 19th century)
4.1 Books burned by civil, military and ecclesiastical authorities between 1640 and 1660 (in Cromwell's England)
4.2 Socinian and Anti-Trinitarian books (by secular and church authorities in the Dutch Republic)
4.3 Earl of Worcester's library (by New Model Army)
4.4 Book criticising Puritanism (in Boston)
4.5 Manuscripts of John Amos Comenius (by anti-Swedish Polish partisans)
4.6 Quaker books (in Boston)
4.7 Great Fire (London)
4.8 Hobbes books (at Oxford University)
4.9 Muslim and Jewish books (during capture of Buda by Austrian troops)
4.10 Swedish National Archives
4.11 Mythical (and/or mystical) writings of Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (by rabbis)
4.12 Protestant books and Bibles (by Archbishop of Salzburg)
4.13 Plays of the John Warburton collection
4.14 Amalasunta (by Carlo Goldoni)
4.15 The writings of Johann Christian Edelmann (by Imperial authorities in Frankfurt)
4.16 Books that offended Qianlong Emperor
4.17 Anti-Wilhelm Tell tract (at Canton of Uri)
4.18 Books of Voltaire (by French authorities)
4.19 Vernacular Catholic hymn books (at Mainz)
4.20 Cluny Abbey's library (in the French Revolution)
4.21 The Libro d'Oro (in the French-ruled Ionian Islands)
4.22 Egyptian archaeological finds (threatened burning by French scholars)

5 Industrial Revolution period
5.1 "The Burned Book" (by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov)
5.2 Musin-Pushkin's library (In Great Moscow Fire)
5.3 Records of the Goa Inquisition (by Portuguese colonial authorities)
5.4 Original Library of Congress Collection (by British troops)
5.5 The Code Napoléon (by German Nationalist students)
5.6 Early braille books (in Paris)
5.7 Library of St. Augustine Academy, Philadelphia (by anti-Irish rioters)
5.8 Chinese literary works (By Anglo-French troops in Beijing)
5.9 "The Bonnie Blue Flag" (by Union General Benjamin Butler)
5.10 Libraries in Confederate cities (during Sherman's March to the Sea)
5.11 Edmond Potonie's papers (by French Police)
5.12 Library of Strasbourg (in German bombardment)
5.13 Library of the Louvre (during suppression of the Paris Commune)
5.14 "Lewd" books (by Anthony Comstock and the NYSSV)
5.15 Pedigrees and books of Muslim law and theology (By the Mahdi in Sudan)
5.16 Emily Dickinson's correspondence (on her orders)
5.17 Ivan Bloch's research on Russian Jews (by Tsarist Russian government)
5.18 Italian Nationalist literature (by Austrian authorities in Trieste)
5.19 Early edition of Dubliners (by publisher)

6 World War I and interbellum era
6.1 Leuven University Library (by World War I German Army)
6.2 Books in Serbian (by World War I Bulgarian Army)
6.3 Valley of the Squinting Windows (at Delvin, Ireland)
6.4 George Grosz's cartoons (By court order in Weimar Germany)
6.5 Irish National Archives (in Civil War)
6.6 Plunkett family records (in Civil War)
6.7 Jewish, anti-Nazi and "degenerate" books (by the Nazis)
6.8 Theodore Dreiser's works (at Warsaw, Indiana)
6.9 Works of Goethe, Shaw, and Freud (by Metaxas dictatorship in Greece)
6.10 Pompeu Fabra's library (by Franco's troops)

7 World War II
7.1 Leuven University Library (by World War II German occupation troops)
7.2 Chinese libraries (by World War II Japanese troops)
7.3 Works in the British Museum (by German bomber planes)
7.4 Jean Genet's Our Lady of the Flowers (by French prison guard)
7.5 Jewish books in Alessandria (by pro-Nazi mob)
7.6 André Malraux's manuscript (by the Gestapo)
7.7 Various libraries in Warsaw, Poland (during World War II)
7.8 Books in the National Library of Serbia (by World War II German bomber planes)
7.9 Douai Municipal Library
7.10 Books in German libraries (by World War II Allied bomber planes)

8 Cold War era and 1990s
8.1 The books of Knut Hamsun (in post-World War II Norway)
8.2 Post-World War II Germany
8.3 Books in Kurdish (in north Iran)
8.4 Comic book burnings, 1948
8.5 Books by Shen Congwen (by Chinese booksellers)
8.6 Judaica collection at Birobidzhan (by Stalin)
8.7 Communist and "fellow traveller" books (by Senator McCarthy)
8.8 Memoirs of Yrjö Leino (By Finnish government, under Soviet pressure)
8.9 Wilhelm Reich's publications (by U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
8.10 Hungarian Revolution of 1956
8.11 University of Algiers library (by OAS)
8.12 Brazil, military coup, 1964
8.13 Religious, Anti-Communist and Genealogy books (in the Cultural Revolution)
8.14 Siné's Massacre (during power struggle in "Penguin Books")
8.15 Beatles Burnings – Southern USA, 1966
8.16 Leftist books in Chile after the 1973 coup d'état
8.17 Book burning caused by Viet Cong in South Vietnam
8.18 Burning of Jaffna library
8.19 The Satanic Verses (worldwide)
8.20 Book burnings in Croatia
8.21 National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992)
8.22 Abkhazian Research Institute of History, Language and Literature & National Library of Abkhazia (by Georgian troops)
8.23 The Nasir-i Khusraw Foundation in Kabul (by the Taliban regime)
8.24 Morgh-e Amin publication house in Tehran (by Islamic extremists)
8.25 National Library of Kosovo

9 21st century
9.1 Berkeley book burning
9.2 Abu Nuwas poetry (by Egyptian Ministry of Culture)
9.3 Independent Librarians (in Cuba)
9.4 Iraq's national library, Baghdad 2003
9.5 Harry Potter books (in various American cities)
9.6 Inventory of Prospero's Books (by proprietors Tom Wayne and W.E. Leathem)
9.7 New Testaments in city of Or Yehuda, Israel
9.8 Non-approved Bibles, books and music in Canton, North Carolina
9.9 Bagram Bibles
9.10 2010–11 Florida Qur'an burning and related burnings
9.11 Operation Dark Heart, memoir by Anthony Shaffer (by the U. S. Dept. of Defense)
9.12 Gaddafi's Green Book
9.13 The burning of the library in the Institut d'Egypte in Cairo
9.14 Suspected Colorado City incident
9.15 Qur'ans in Afghanistan
9.16 Manuscripts in Timbuktu
9.17 Climate change book at San Jose State University
9.18 National Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2014)
9.19 The Hindus: An Alternative History (under court order in India)
9.20 ISIS book burning